Summer

Summer is something I had not experienced for a while, a forgotten part of myself.

The growing, sonorous, clamouring call of all that is warm and blooming.

These are feelings that cannot be felt at any other time of the year, a low ache that feeds itself on long evenings and lonely bird calls. It pulls you out of bed in the morning to the streets where everyone is grateful for the blue and the gold and the green that engulf the eyes.

Or perhaps not engulf, but catch you in the corner of your vision, in a cityscape where rolled sleeves and skirts move along the pavement and the concrete, the green of the park luring all with tin foil barbeques and clashing speakers and pulled out deck chairs scattered across parched grass.

A population intoxicated, with complete abandon, a dependency on sunshine.

The rejoice when high pressure raises high spirits

And then those evenings, where the richest, most somnambulant golds turn to the softest, most yearning purples

And all of your life, all summer evenings, all adolescent longing bind together in the space of two hours.

Happy Halloween – A Potted History.

The 31st of October always fills me with a sense of excitement, no matter how old I get. From the nights getting darker earlier to the orange leaves crunching underfoot, for me Halloween marks the beginning of the prolonged festive season intersected with cosy nights in cradling mugs of hot chocolate and cold autumnal walks.

My own earliest memories of Halloween are my dad taking me round the local graveyard at night, me riding my scooter dressed as a witch carrying my favourite toy Batty Bat… Let’s just say I was an imaginative child!

Halloween itself is often considered a very American holiday that has made its way to the UK and is slowly making its journey around the globe. For many of our students in China, they may have some form of celebration of Halloween – perhaps a party held in a shopping mall, or dressing up at school – but it is likely the history and the common activities of Halloween are somewhat alien to them.

Halloween is an excellent topic to have in class, it opens up the discussion about fears and festivals in general, Halloween traditions and lots of exciting vocabulary to do with witches, pumpkins and ghosts. We’ve put together a list of five interesting facts about Halloween to discuss with your students – and help you get into the spooky mood!

 Halloween actually comes from Ireland and Celtic Europe

Despite its very American feel, Halloween has its roots in the Celtic festival of Samhain which celebrated the changing of the seasons from summer to autumn, a period associated with an increase in loss of life. This festival marked the beginning of the ‘darker half of the year’ and was seen as a liminal period in which the living world could connect with those spirits who had passed. It was a period marked with bonfires, feasts and offerings. The Catholic Church attempted to change this festival into a day to celebrate the saints (All Saint’s Day) however, as you can see today, this has been largely overshadowed by the more supernatural elements of its history.

As many emigrated from Ireland and England to America, so too the holiday emigrated, becoming enmeshed in the culture. Parades and community events were organised, trying to remove the superstitious and religious elements of the day and making it more of a community-based event for the young. Now, very much a secular festival, ghosts are now horrifying and the day is more about seeing how scared you can make yourself rather than connecting with the end of the summer and those souls who have passed.

What are pumpkin lanterns all about?

Again, this tradition can be linked back to Ireland! These cute, carved pumpkins originate from the tale of Stingy Jack who made a deal with the devil, then had to walk the earth carrying a lantern carved from a turnip. Somehow the turnip morphed into a pumpkin which is no bad thing, a pumpkin looks far better than a turnip would outside your front door! The carving of pumpkins is also said to link to Samhain festival, where people would carve pumpkins either to scare away spirits, or to represent those souls who were stuck in purgatory.

Trick or Treat! 

A tradition that is only recently catching on in other countries, trick or treat is where mostly children go from door to door in their local area asking for sweets and chocolate – one of the only days where it is acceptable to take candy from a stranger. But where did this particular tradition come from?

Perhaps you’ve already guessed it – it first began in Ireland! During Samhain, some people would dress up as spirits so that the real spirits wondering about would mistake them for friends, rather than people to terror. When the Catholic Church tried to turn the day into All Saints’ Day, the costumes became less ghostly and more saint and martyry with a few angels thrown in. From the many costumes you can buy these days, it seems that all traditions have blended – you can now easily find ghostly saints and scary angels alongside your ghosts and vampires.

As the season changed from later summer into winter, Samhain became a period where the poor could go from door to door and beg for food or money in return of a prayer or a song. A little far removed from its original conception, the act of going door to door has turned a little more one-sided. It has been commented that the UK is particularly hostile to trick-or-treating and many families turn off the lights and pretend not to be in.

Why so many sweets?

Good question! The giving out of sweets, or candy as it is called in America, is a fairly recent phenomena, starting in the late 1940s. In the early years of Halloween, those who did not wish for the spirits to come knocking on their door would leave little spiced ‘soul’ cakes outside the door. As time went on, those early trick or treaters looking for food or money in return for prayers or songs would ask for those cakes when knocking. As America became the America it is today, cakes turned into cookies, and cookies inevitably turned into sugary goods. Somehow, wrapped up in the sugar and sweets industry, we have developed the trick or treat sugar Spooktacular event we have today.

 

First appeared on the IQBar Blog, an online English Language school based in the UK and China – https://iqbar.co.uk/f/tobloginfo?id=0629ab03938144bcb9b16d7bc0ae3aa2

 

Heat

The heat is so thick

the layer of water on your top lip you don’t know if sweat or humidity

the warmth comes through to your stomach

and your movements are

complex

do you get up to go to get water

or do you stay and turn into water

this is honey

this is sleep

this is the end of dry season building up to rainy season clouds are forming soon will be storming

heat